How to install hadoop 2.7.3 single node cluster on ubuntu 16.04

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In this post, we are installing Hadoop-2.7.3 on Ubuntu-16.04 OS. Followings are step by step process to install hadoop-2.7.3 as a single node cluster.

Before installing or downloading anything, It is always better to update using following command:

$ sudo apt-get update


Step 1: Install Java

$ sudo apt-get install default-jdk

We can check JAVA is properly installed or not using following command:

$ java –version


Step 2: Add dedicated hadoop user

$ sudo addgroup hadoop
$ sudo adduser --ingroup hadoop hduser

NOTE: don’t write password or any things here, Just press ‘y’ when it ask “Is the information correct?[Y|n]”


$ sudo adduser hduser sudo

Step 3: Install SSH

$ sudo apt-get install ssh

Step-4: Passwordless entry for localhost using SSH

$ su hduser


Now we are logined in in ‘hduser’.

$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
NOTE: Leave file name and other things blank.
$ cat ~/.ssh/ >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
$ chmod 0600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
$ ssh localhost


Use above command and make sure it is passwordless login. Once we are logined in localhost, exit from this session using following command

$ exit

Step 5: Install hadoop-2.7.3

$ wget
$ tar xvzf hadoop-2.7.3.tar.gz
$ sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/hadoop
$ cd hadoop-2.7.3/
$ sudo mv * /usr/local/hadoop
$ sudo chown -R hduser:hadoop /usr/local/hadoop


Step 6: Setup Configuration Files

The following files should to be modified to complete the Hadoop setup:

6.1 ~/.bashrc


6.3 core-site.xml

6.4 mapred-site.xml

6.5 hdfs-site.xml

6.6 yarn-site.xml

6.1 ~/.bashrc

First, we need to find the path where JAVA is installed in our system

$ update-alternatives --config java


Now we append at the end of ~/.bashrc:

It may possible vi will not work properly. If it does install vim

$ sudo apt-get install vim

Open bashrc file using command:

$ vim ~/.bashrc

Append following at the end. (Follow this process -> First append below content at the end by pressing ‘INSERT’ or ‘i’ key from keyboard-> Press ‘ecs’ -> Press ‘:’ (colon) -> Press ‘wq’->Press ‘Enter’ Key)

export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-8-openjdk-amd64
export HADOOP_HOME=/usr/local/hadoop
export HADOOP_OPTS="-Djava.library.path=$HADOOP_HOME/lib"

Update .bashrc file to apply changes

$ source ~/.bashrc


We need to modify JAVA_HOME path in to ensure that the value of JAVA_HOME variable will be available to Hadoop whenever it is started up.

$ vim /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/

Search JAVA_HOME variable in file. It may first variable in file. Do Change it by following:

export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-8-openjdk-amd64


6.3 core-site.xml

core-site.xml file has configuration properties which are requires when Hadoop is started up.

$ sudo mkdir -p /app/hadoop/tmp

$ sudo chown hduser:hadoop /app/hadoop/tmp

Open the file and enter the following in between the <configuration></configuration> tag:

$ vim /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/core-site.xml
   <description>A base for other temporary directories.</description>
    <description>The name of the default file system.  A URI whose scheme and authority determine the FileSystem implementation.  The uri's scheme determines the config property (fs.SCHEME.impl) naming the FileSystem implementation class.  The uri's authority is used to determine the host, port, etc. for a filesystem.</description>


6.4 mapred-site.xml

By default, the /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/ folder contains /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/mapred-site.xml.template file which has to be renamed/copied with the name mapred-site.xml:

$ cp /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/mapred-site.xml.template /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/mapred-site.xml

The /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/mapred-site.xml file is used to specify which framework is being used for MapReduce.

We need to enter the following content in between the <configuration></configuration> tag:

$ vim /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/mapred-site.xml
      <description> The host and port that the MapReduce job tracker runs at.  If "local", then jobs are run in-process as a single map and reduce task.


6.5 hdfs-site.xml

We need to configure hdfs-site.xml for each host in the cluster which specifies two directories:

  1. Name node
  2. Data node

These can be done using the following commands:

$ sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/hadoop_store/hdfs/namenode
$ sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/hadoop_store/hdfs/datanode
$ sudo chown -R hduser:hadoop /usr/local/hadoop_store

Open hdfs-site.xml file and enter the following content in between the <configuration></configuration> tag:

$ vim /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/hdfs-site.xml
  <description>Default block replication.The actual number of replications can be specified when the file is created. The default is used if replication is not specified in create time.


6.6 yarn-site.xml

Open hdfs-site.xml file and enter the following content in between the <configuration></configuration> tag:

$ vim /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/yarn-site.xml


Step7: Format hadoop file system

$  hadoop namenode –format


Step 8: Start Hadoop Daemons

$  cd /usr/local/hadoop/sbin



We can check all daemons are properly started using following command:

$ jps


Step 9: Stop hadoop Daemons



Congratulation..!! We have installed hadoop successfully.. 🙂

Hadoop has Web Interfaces too. (Copy and paste following links in your browser)

NameNode daemon: http://localhost:50070/


mapreduce: http://localhost:8042/


SecondaryNameNode:: http://localhost:50090/status.html


Resource Manager: http://localhost:8088/


Now, we run mapreduce job on our newly created hadoop single node cluster setup.

hduser@parthgoel:/usr/local/hadoop$ hadoop jar ./share/hadoop/mapreduce/hadoop-mapreduce-examples-2.7.3.jar pi 2 5


You may like this post:

How to Create Word Count MapReduce Application using Eclipse

NOTE: Whenever we login in Ubuntu, make sure you are in ‘hduser’.

If you are not in hduser, use below command to login in ‘hduser’

$ su hduser


Now you can use all hadoop commands here.

Enjoy..!! Happy Hadooping..!! 🙂

NOTE/error: Once we run any mapreduce program and then you format the namenode,  you start all services, it may possible that data node may not get started.


Your datanode is not starting because You formatted the namenode again. That means you have cleared the metadata from namenode. Now the files which you have stored for running any mapreduce job are still in the datanode and datanode has no idea where to send the block reports since you formatted the namenode so it will not start.

$ sudo rm -r /usr/local/hadoop_store/hdfs/datanode/current
$ hadoop namenode -format
$ jps

Again Congratulations…!!! Now we can run any hadoop example on this single node cluster. Just make sure you are login in ‘hduser’ because our hadoop setup is available on this dedicated ‘hduser’.


23 thoughts on “How to install hadoop 2.7.3 single node cluster on ubuntu 16.04

    Nikhil Yadav said:
    January 4, 2017 at 3:11 pm

    Very nice step by step tutorial.


    hassan said:
    February 9, 2017 at 12:40 pm

    i done all steps till finished setup done thanks
    but http://localhost:50070/
    not working can tell me why? and how it to work


      parthgoelblog responded:
      February 9, 2017 at 1:59 pm

      Make sure-Namenode is working properly.


      Gangadhar SIraveni said:
      June 8, 2017 at 9:33 am

      Even I too got the same issue. What is the problem?


    Rakesh Kumar said:
    February 14, 2017 at 8:47 am

    HI , I am installing Hadoop 2.7.3. I follow the exact steps mentioned. My secondary name node is not getting stared. Secondary name Node is not getting started.When I am running JPS command ,it doesn’t shows secondary name node.
    Plse help me regarding this.


    […] NOTE: In this post, you have learned WordCount Application in eclipse using MapReduce. In the next post, I will guide you how to export jar files from eclipse and run on Hadoop. (If you don’t know, how to configure Hadoop click here) […]


    Anonymous said:
    March 14, 2017 at 6:52 pm

    Excellent! very detailed and clear instructions. Thanks.


    Shekhar Reddy said:
    March 17, 2017 at 8:01 am

    Hello Parth, is there anything to be added to this to get it done on Ubuntu 14.04??


      parthgoelblog responded:
      March 17, 2017 at 8:10 am

      Hi Shekhar, I have not tried on Ubuntu 14.04. We use all general commands related to hadoop, so i don’t think so OS version will be an issue.

      Liked by 2 people

    randhir65 said:
    March 20, 2017 at 2:16 pm

    hi shekhar,I have done all the steps mentioned above but my namenode is not running and i unable to perform hadoop fs or dfs -ls command ,its showing error that it is unable to load class file.



      parthgoelblog responded:
      March 20, 2017 at 2:33 pm

      Make sure to create namenode folder and change owenership for hduser and provide proper path of namenode in hdfs-site.xml


        Abhijit Dey said:
        April 11, 2017 at 4:37 pm

        Namenode folder is created and also has ownership for hduser. Path of namenode is also provided in hdfs-site.xml but namenode is still not starting when I execute


        Abhijit Dey said:
        April 13, 2017 at 2:53 pm

        It worked very well…namenode is now starting…problem fixed….thanks.


    btcwp2017 said:
    March 29, 2017 at 11:46 am



      parthgoelblog responded:
      March 29, 2017 at 2:19 pm



        Rob said:
        April 13, 2017 at 10:35 am

        This is really good but I find that all the folders in hadoop are like this now there is no simple hadoop/bin file anymore does this mean I have to update all the paths in the .bashrc file and go to each folder like hdfs and common to execute the various commands now ?

        Any help v appreciated can’t find any references on stack or anywhere else about this



        hduser@GGH-D-HADAPP-L2:/usr/local/hadoop$ ls -la
        total 204
        drwxr-xr-x 16 hduser hadoop 4096 Mar 2 17:47 .
        drwxrwxrwx 12 root root 4096 Apr 11 16:31 ..
        -rw-r–r– 1 hduser hadoop 13050 Aug 12 2016 BUILDING.txt
        drwxr-xr-x 3 hduser hadoop 4096 Mar 1 16:59 dev-support
        drwxr-xr-x 3 hduser hadoop 4096 Mar 1 16:59 hadoop-assemblies
        drwxr-xr-x 2 hduser hadoop 4096 Mar 1 16:59 hadoop-build-tools
        drwxr-xr-x 2 hduser hadoop 4096 Mar 1 16:59 hadoop-client
        drwxr-xr-x 10 hduser hadoop 4096 Mar 1 16:59 hadoop-common-project
        drwxr-xr-x 2 hduser hadoop 4096 Mar 1 16:59 hadoop-dist
        drwxr-xr-x 6 hduser hadoop 4096 Mar 1 16:59 hadoop-hdfs-project
        drwxr-xr-x 9 hduser hadoop 4096 Mar 1 16:59 hadoop-mapreduce-project
        drwxr-xr-x 3 hduser hadoop 4096 Mar 1 16:59 hadoop-maven-plugins
        drwxr-xr-x 2 hduser hadoop 4096 Mar 1 16:59 hadoop-minicluster
        drwxr-xr-x 3 hduser hadoop 4096 Mar 1 16:59 hadoop-project
        drwxr-xr-x 2 hduser hadoop 4096 Mar 1 16:59 hadoop-project-dist
        drwxr-xr-x 16 hduser hadoop 4096 Mar 1 16:59 hadoop-tools
        drwxr-xr-x 3 hduser hadoop 4096 Mar 1 16:59 hadoop-yarn-project
        -rw-r–r– 1 hduser hadoop 84854 Aug 12 2016 LICENSE.txt
        -rw-r–r– 1 hduser hadoop 14978 Aug 12 2016 NOTICE.txt
        -rw-r–r– 1 hduser hadoop 18993 Aug 12 2016 pom.xml
        -rw-r–r– 1 hduser hadoop 1366 Aug 12 2016 README.txt


        Rob said:
        April 13, 2017 at 2:32 pm

        Sorry ignore me being daft I forgot I had to do the build off the source this is a great tutorial


    April 10, 2017 at 9:33 am

    For hadoop 2.7.3 then command “hadoop namenode –format” is depreciated, and we should use ” hdfs namenode –format”. thanks …great work…..

    Liked by 1 person

    Srikanta Patra said:
    May 16, 2017 at 12:24 pm

    Thanks for the excellent step by step guide. It works great.


    Anonymous said:
    June 16, 2017 at 8:26 am

    Thanks very much for the post. Really useful for novice person.


    Sheshant Shazzy said:
    June 17, 2017 at 10:50 am

    namenode not started
    when I run jps, this is my output

    hduser@sheshant-Inspiron-3521:/usr/local/hadoop/sbin$ jps
    18842 ResourceManager
    18467 DataNode
    18688 SecondaryNameNode
    19076 Jps
    18988 NodeManager


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